WhiteKnightTwo

WhiteKnightTwo

Utilizing an open-architecture design and powered by four Pratt & Whitney turbofans, WhiteKnightTwo provides the high-altitude launch platform for SpaceShipTwo to achieve sub-orbital flight.

Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer

Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer

This record-breaking, single-place, aviation marvel features two external booms flanking a center pod where the pilot sits, on top of which is the aircraft's powerhouse, a Williams turbofan jet engine.

SpaceShipOne

SpaceShipOne

SpaceShipOne, the first private manned spacecraft, is a three-place, high-altitude research rocket, designed for sub-orbital flights at an altitude of 100 km and powered by a unique hybrid rocket motor.

White Knight

White Knight

Initially developed to provide a launch platform at 50,000 ft for SpaceShipOne, White Knight is a three-place, high-altitude, flexible and capable research aircraft.

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11/28/2014

Think Big

Stratolaunch

Stratolaunch Systems, a Paul G. Allen project, will build a mobile launch system with three primary components, a carrier aircraft, a multi-stage booster, and a state-of-the-art mating and integration system.

The Stratolaunch carrier aircraft, currently in development by Scaled, will be the largest aircraft ever flown. The airlaunch system will provide orbital access to space with greater safety, cost-effectiveness, and flexibility.

Visit Stratolaunch Systems for more information.

Firebird

Firebird offers a large internal payload bay and an ability to operate multiple intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR) and communications payloads simultaneously through a universal interface. The system is designed to be flown as a manned or unmanned aircraft.

BiPod

The BIPOD program was conceived as a rapid, low-cost electric test-bed using as many COTS components as possible. During initial conceptual design studies, Scaled found that many of their propulsion system characteristics were well aligned with the drivetrain needs of a roadable vehicle and expanded the research program to include a “flying car” airframe. With the impending deadline of Rutan’s retirement, Scaled Composites pursued an aggressive schedule and successfully achieved first flight of the BIPOD vehicle within four months of beginning preliminary design. The entirely new design will operate as a high-performance airplane with STOL capabilities, 200 mph maximum speed, and 700 mile range or as a road commuter vehicle capable of freeway speeds, urban driving, and garage storage.


Rutan and his team took a novel approach to solving many of the design challenges associated with a roadable aircraft. Scaled placed a large emphasis on developing a configuration that was safe for ground operations, yet still efficient at high flight speeds. Accordingly, BIPOD’s twin fuselage configuration provides a low-drag enclosure for a robust, 4-wheeled chassis with two cockpits, while providing a protected storage location for the wings and tail surfaces during ground operations. Two internal combustion engines, one per fuselage, provide power to the rear wheels and to propellers located on the horizontal stabilizer. Lithium batteries in the nose provide additional energy for take-off and in the case of an engine emergency. The vehicle’s center of gravity is positioned for ground operation stability, while aircraft rotation is enabled by direct blowing of the horizontal stabilizer and by applying power to the rear wheels. The use of electric power transmission decouples engine location from propeller location without the need for mechanical shafts and gearboxes, enabling BIPOD’s unique geometry.


The vehicle performed well during initial ground and flight testing. The low center of gravity and wide track resulted in a stable, controllable road configuration both on the skid pad and at freeway speeds. Initial flight tests indicate that the vehicle is stable and controllable. Scaled is continuing to test and develop the BIPOD configuration and hybrid propulsion system, with the goal of using similar systems on future unique aircraft configurations. Despite the inherent inefficiencies associated with energy conversion steps, Scaled Composites believes hybrid systems may offer advantages for specific mission requirements, such as distributed propulsion, multi-mode operation, or energy recovery. Furthermore, the use of carbon fuels provides better energy density and a lower gross take-off weight for the same range when compared to electric-only vehicles. Ultimately, the BIPOD configuration will provide a unique propulsion system test bed in an operational flight vehicle, providing Scaled Composites experience with a number of different powerplants and associated systems.

SpaceShipTwo Test Summaries

Flight Test Legend: GF = Glide Flight
P = Powered Flight
GC = Aborted Glide Flight

Flight: 93 / GF22
Date: 11 Aug 12 Flight Time: 8 min, 2 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Binnie
GS Crew: MacKay, Jaster, Bozarth, Verderame, Cassebeer, M. Fuchs, Bourgeois, Glaser, Tighe, Bassett

Objectives:
Maximum glide flight mach and airspeed envelope expansion
Horizontal tail load expansion

Results:
All objectives achieved. With this latest round of six flights we have cleared the full glide-flight envelope for airspeed, angle-of-attack, CG, and structural loads!


Flight: 92 / GF21
Date: 7 Aug 12 Flight Time: 9 min, 52 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Colmer
GS Crew: Tighe, Bourgeois, Knupp, Bassett, Inks, Verderame, Kalogiannis, M. Fuchs, Glaser

Objectives:
Aft CG angle-of-attack expansion
Aft CG feather expansion
Heavy weight, aft CG landing

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 91 / GF20
Date: 2 Aug 12 Flight Time: 8 min
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Nichols
GS Crew: Binnie, Verderame, Kalogiannis, Bourgeois, Knupp, Tighe, Cassebeer, M. Fuchs

Objectives:
Feathered strake evaluation
Evaluate elevon dampers and rudder locks
Forward CG landing

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 90 / GF19
Date: 18 Jul 12 Flight Time: 10 min, 39 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Nichols
GS Crew: Binnie, Kalogiannis, Jaster, Verderame, Cassebeer, M. Fuchs, Bassett, Knupp, Reid, Bourgeois

Objectives:
Aft CG S&C strake evaluation
Airspeed expansion
Heavy weight landing

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 88 / GF18
Date: 29 Jun 12 Flight Time: 13 min
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Mackay
GS Crew: Tighe, Bassett, Knupp, Bourgeois, Jaster, Bozarth, Cassebeer, M. Fuchs, Verderame

Objectives:
Strake evaluation
Pilot familiarization

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 87 / GF17
Date: 26 Jun 12 Flight Time: 11 min, 22 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury
GS Crew: Tighe, Bassett, Knupp, Bourgeois, Glaser, Jaster, Bozarth, Cassebeer, M. Fuchs, Verderame, Nichols

Objectives:
SS2 control surface flutter data collection
SS2 aero stability and control validation
RCS airborne functional test
Speed brake check
Frequency sweeps without dampers

Results:
All objectives achieved. Great return to flight!


Test: SS2 Taxi 03
Date: 01 Jun 12 Time: 3 hr on runway
Crew (Runs 01-02): Siebold / Nichols / Mackay
Crew (Run 03): Alsbury / Siebold / Mackay
Crew (Run 04): Mackay / Siebold / Alsbury

Objectives:
Condition and evaluate the decelerating performance with the new higher capacity brakes.

Results:
We performed four tests from 30 to 65 mph with three different pilots. All objectives were achieved.


Flight: 73 / GF16
Date: 29 Sep 11 Flight Time: 7 min, 15 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Nichols SS2 FTE: Persall
GS Crew: Alsbury, Verderame, Kalogiannis, Vannoy, Glasser, Reid, Inks, Tighe, Bassett

Objectives:
Post maintenance functional check flight
Clean release
Evaluate stability and control
Flutter expansion
Previous flutter point validation
Increased weight landing (using water ballast)
Pilot proficiency

Results:
Test card called for releasing the Spaceship from WhiteKnightTwo and immediately entering a rapid descent. Upon release, the Spaceship experienced a downward pitch rate that caused a stall of the tails. The crew followed procedure, selecting the feather mode to revert to a benign condition. The crew then defeathered and had a nominal return to base. Great flying by the team and good demo of feather system.


Flight: 68 / GF15
Date: 27 Jun 11 Flight Time: 7 min, 39 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Binnie
GS Crew: Tighe, Bassett, Inks, Verderame, Persall, Knupp, Zeitlin, Reid

Objectives:
Continued airspeed flutter susceptibility envelope expansion

Results:
All objectives achieved. Dynamic pressure envelope further expanded.


Flight: 67 / GF14
Date: 23 Jun 11 Flight Time: 7 min, 33 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Nichols
GS Crew: Tighe, Verderame, Persall, Bassett, Glaser, Reid, Knupp, Inks

Objectives:
Continued mach and airspeed flutter susceptibility envelope expansion

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 66 / GF13
Date: 21 Jun 11 Flight Time: 8 min, 55 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Nichols
GS Crew: Tighe, Persall, Verderame, Bassett, Glaser, Reid, Knupp, Inks

Objectives:
Continued flutter susceptibility envelope expansion

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 65 / GF12
Date: 15 Jun 11 Flight Time: 10 min, 32 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Nichols
GS Crew: Bassett, Reid, Glaser, Binnie, Keller, Tighe, Inks, Kelley, Bozarth

Objectives:
Continued flutter susceptibility envelope expansion

Results:
All objectives achieved. Second flight in 24 hours!


Flight: 64 / GF11
Date: 14 Jun 11 Flight Time: 13 min, 18 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Shane
GS Crew: Nichols, Bassett, Kalogiannis, Reid, Glaser, Keller, Tighe, Inks

Objectives:
Flutter susceptibility envelope expansion

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 61 / GF10
Date: 25 May 11 Flight Time: 10 min, 14 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Binnie
GS Crew: Nichols, Verderame, Bassett, Bozarth, Persall, Glaser, Inks, Tighe

Objectives:
Second feather flight
Evaluate feather configuration stability with nose strakes installed
Low altitude flutter envelope expansion
Shortened runway approach and landing validation

Results:
All objectives achieved. Much improved longitudinal dynamics in the feather configuration.


Flight: 60 / GF09
Date: 19 May 11 Flight Time: 11 min, 32 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Binnie
GS Crew: Alsbury, Kalogiannis, Bassett, Reid, Glaser, Verderame, Tighe, Persall, Inks

Objectives:
Flutter susceptibility envelope expansion

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 59 / GF08
Date: 10 May 11 Flight Time: 13 min, 2 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Shane
GS Crew: Alsbury, Tighe, Verderame, Persall, Bozarth, Reid, Glaser, Knupp, Inks

Objectives:
Flutter susceptibility testing
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 58 / GF07
Date: 4 May 11 Flight Time: 11 min, 5 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Nichols
GS Crew: Binnie, Tighe, Bassett, Verderame, Kalogiannis, Persall, Zeitlin, Glaser, Knupp, Cassebeer

Objectives:
Feather evaluation
Evaluate stability and control
Flutter susceptibility testing
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved....Awesome flight!


Flight: 57 / GF06
Date: 27 Apr 11 Flight Time: 16 min, 7 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury
GS Crew: Binnie, Kelley, Bassett, Tighe, Reid, Glaser, Inks, Verderame, Maisler, Knupp

Objectives:
Evaluate stability and control
Continued flutter envelope expansion
Pilot proficiency

Results:
Clean release at desired altitude. Glide test objectives complete without issues.


Flight: 56 / GF05
Date: 22 Apr 11 Flight Time: 14 min, 31 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Shane
GS Crew: Binnie, Kelley, Bassett, Tighe, Reid, Keller, Verderame, Maisler, Zeitlin

Objectives:
Clean release
Evaluate stability and control
Continued flutter envelope expansion
Pilot proficiency

Results:
Clean release at desired altitude. Glide test objectives complete without issues.


Flight: 47 / GF04
Date: 13 Jan 11 Flight Time: 11 min, 34 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Nichols
GS Crew: Binnie, Kalogiannis, Verderame, Maisler, Persall, Bassett, Zeitlin, Reid, Tighe, Inks

Objectives:
Clean release
Evaluate stability and control
Stall expansion
Continued flutter envelope expansion
Aft CG expansion with water ballast tank
Window heater evaluation
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved. Stall at aft CG. Evaluated flutter modifications to 250 KEAS. Envelope expanded to 3.8 g's. As part of the test objectives, the SS2 pilots vented water ballast just before coming in to land, which produced a visible contrail.


Flight: 45 / GF03
Date: 17 Nov 10 Flight Time: 11 min, 39 sec
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Nichols
GS Crew: Binnie, Persall, Knupp, Inks, Bassett, Y. Fuchs, Maisler, Verderame, Zeitlin

Objectives:
Clean release
Evaluate stability and control
Stall expansion
Expand flutter envelope
Aft CG expansion with water ballast tank
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved. Flew to a more aggressive stall indication. Expanded envelope to 246 KEAS and 3.5 g's.


Flight: 44 / GF02
Date: 28 Oct 10 Flight Time: 10 min, 51 sec
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury
GS Crew: Binnie, Kalogiannis, Persall, Knupp, Inks, Bassett, Cassebeer, Story, Y. Fuchs, Maisler, Verderame, Kelley

Objectives:
Clean release
Evaluate stability and control
Expand flutter envelope
Roll evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved. Flew to more aggressive stall indication. Evaluated handling and stability through several maneuvers. Expanded envelope to 230 KEAS and 3g's. Roll evaluation. Full stop landing.


Flight: 41 / GF01
Date: 10 Oct 10 Flight Time: 13 min
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury
GS Crew: Binnie, Tighe, Bassett, Verderame, Keller, Kelley, Maisler, Knupp, Y. Fuchs, Moody, Inks

Objectives:
Clean release
Evaluate stability and control
Expand flutter envelope
Evaluate performance
Land

Results:
All objectives achieved. Very positive and controllable release from mothership at 46,000 ft. Slowed to first stall indication. Pilots evaluated the handling and stability through several maneuvers. Expanded envelope to 180 KEAS and 2g's. Evaluated performance with speed brake in and out. Full stop landing executed to the target aim point. Great flying airplane (spaceplane). We'd like to thank our team and all at Virgin who've enabled us to get back in the low aspect ratio glider business.


Test: SS2 Taxi 01
Date: 14 Jun 10 Time: 3 hr on runway
Crew (Runs 01-04): Siebold / Nichols
Crew (Runs 05): Stucky / Nichols

Results:
Monday was a great milestone for the team. We performed five tests from 25 to 60 mph with two different pilots. All objectives were achieved. They were: condition the brakes and evaluate the landing gear/brake steering/skid shoe performance and general ground handling. The vehicle performed as expected and we're excited to move into the manned phase of the test program.


Back to SpaceShipTwo Information

WhiteKnightTwo Flight Test Summaries

The following list includes summaries of the flight test activity of the WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) aircraft. WhiteKnightTwo is the mothership aircraft for SpaceShipTwo (SS2) and potentially other large payloads. It is equipped with many common system components to SS2 (cabin, ECS, speed-brake actuators, avionics, trim servos, air data, test data, video and TM). Thus, the flight test program of WK2 includes many tests that focus on SS2 systems qualification and maturity.
Flight Test Legend: CC = Captive Carry
GF = Glide Flight
P = Powered Flight
GC = Aborted Glide Flight

Flight: 95
Date: 5 Sep 12 Flight Time: 3.1 hr
WK2 Pilot: Colmer WK2 CoPilot: Stucky WK2 FTE: Withrow

Objectives:
Virgin Galactic WK2 pilot proficiency
Simulated engine out minimum control speed testing
Communication and radio navigation system performance testing

Results:
Static and dynamic Vmca test points completed at maximum continuous thrust at a build-up altitude. Long range VOR and communication performance successfully verified. ILS guidance and performance verified throughout the localizer coverage pattern.

Flight: 94
Date: 22 Aug 12 Flight Time: 1.3 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Maisler WK2 FTE: Bassett

Objectives:
Evaluate fuel ejector pump upgrade
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 93 / GF22
Date: 11 Aug 12 Flight Time: 1.5 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis WK2 FTE: Inks

Objectives:
SS2 release mission
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 92 / GF21
Date: 7 Aug 12 Flight Time: 1.5 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Binnie WK2 FTE: Reeder

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 91 / GF20
Date: 2 Aug 12 Flight Time: 1.6 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Mackay WK2 FTE: Bassett

Objectives:
SS2 release mission
Evaluate horizontal tail thermal protection

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 90 / GF19
Date: 18 Jul 12 Flight Time: 2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Maisler WK2 FTE: Seguin

Objectives:
SS2 release mission
Fly a no-guidance SS2 approach
CoPilot training

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 89 / CC16
Date: 16 Jul 12 Flight Time: 1.7 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Maisler WK2 FTE: Knupp
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Nichols

Objectives:
SS2 release mission
CoPilot training

Results:
Due to out of limit winds, conducted simulated mission.

Flight: 88 / GF18
Date: 29 Jun 12 Flight Time: 1.1 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Glaser

Objectives:
SS2 release mission
GF crew mission practice

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 87 / GF17
Date: 26 Jun 12 Flight Time: 1.8 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Mackay WK2 FTE: Morgan

Objectives:
SS2 release mission
GF crew mission practice

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 86
Date: 21 June 12 Flight Time: 2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Colmer WK2 FTE: Tighe

Objectives:
Virgin Galactic WK2 pilot proficiency and joint SS2 GF pilot proficiency
Fuel systems testing.

Results:
System testing complete and multiple simulated SS2 approaches flown.


Flight: 85
Date: 15 Jun 12 Flight Time: 1.5 hr
WK2 Pilot: Mackay WK2 CoPilot: Stucky WK2 FTE: Vannoy

Objectives:
Virgin Galactic WK2 pilot proficiency and joint SS2 GF pilot proficiency

Results:
Conducted multiple instrument approaches and touch and goes at multiple airports.


Flight: 84
Date: 12 Jun 12 Flight Time: 2.2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Colmer WK2 FTE: Zeeb

Objectives:
Pilot familiarization
Cold soak gear behavior
Fuel inlet temps
Dump valve evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 83 / CC15
Date: 8 Jun 12 Flight Time: 2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Mackay WK2 FTE: Morgan
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury

Objectives:
Rehearsal for glide flight
Damper system bypass mode evaluation
New stabilizer controller checkout
New MFD software checkout
New DAU checkout
WK2 landing gear cold soak

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 82
Date: 2 Jun 12 Flight Time: 1 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Alsbury WK2 FTE: Verderame

Objectives:
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 81
Date: 2 Jun 12 Flight Time: 1 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Verderame

Objectives:
Pilot proficiency
Spoil flap evaluation
Cold soak gear extension retraction
CoPilot brake evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 80
Date: 16 May 12 Flight Time: 0.8 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Colmer WK2 FTE: Inks

Objectives:
Pilot familiarization
Cold soak gear extension retraction
Dump valve evaluation

Results:
Primary objectives achieved. Early return due to increasing surface winds.


Flight: 79
Date: 12 Apr 12 Flight Time: 2.9 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Siebold WK2 FTE: Glaser

Objectives:
Fuel cooler testing
Cold soak gear extension retraction
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 77-78
Date: 6 Dec 11 Flight Time: 4.6 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Glaser

Objectives:
Cold soak gear extension retraction
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 76 / CC14
Date: 19 Oct 11 Flight Time: 3.2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Mackay WK2 FTE: Nichols
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Binnie SS2 FTE: Tighe

Objectives:
SS2 systems cold soak testing
SS2 cabin environmental testing
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 75 / CC14
Date: 17 Oct 11 Flight Time: 0.3 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Mackay WK2 FTE: Nichols

Objectives:
Spaceport America demonstration

Results:
Successful demonstration.

Flight: 74 / CC13
Date: 16 Oct 11 Flight Time: 2.8 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Mackay WK2 FTE: Nichols
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Binnie SS2 FTE: Tighe

Objectives:
SS2 systems cold soak testing
SS2 3rd seat evaluation
Spaceport America operations and facility evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 73 / GF16
Date: 29 Sep 11 Flight Time: 1.7 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Mackay WK2 FTE: Knupp

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 72
Date: 31 Aug 11 Flight Time: 3.1 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Mackay WK2 FTE: Tighe
GS Crew: Stucky, Glaser, Persall, Reid, Inks

Objectives:
Continued engine fuel inlet cooler performance testing at additional altitudes
Flutter data repeatability at high altitude
Anti-skid operational check and data collection
Micro g parabola profile refinement and pilot proficiency
High altitude gear extension
Pilot proficiency/New pilot checkout

Results:
All objectives achieved. Better engine fuel inlet cooler performance. Three micro g parabolas executed. Excellent performance from new pilot.

Flight: 71
Date: 18 Aug 11 Flight Time: 3.2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Reid
GS Crew: Tighe, Glaser, Persall, Siebold, Inks

Objectives:
Continued engine fuel inlet cooler performance testing at additional altitudes
Flutter data collection at high altitude
Anti-skid operational check and data collection
Micro g parabola profile refinement and pilot proficiency
SS2 pylon release mechanism test fire at low temperatures

Results:
All objectives achieved. Engine fuel inlet cooler will receive continued refinement. Anti-skid operated as expected. 6 micro g parabolas executed. SS2 pylon release mechanism functioned properly at low temperatures.

Flight: 70
Date: 17 Aug 11 Flight Time: 1.1 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Inks
GS Crew: Tighe

Objectives:
Landing gear functional check
Engine fuel inlet cooler performance testing
Micro g parabola investigation
Medium speed anti-skid operational check and data collection

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 69
Date: 11 Aug 11 Flight Time: 2.1 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Reid
GS Crew: Tighe, Glaser, Persall, Siebold, and Inks

Objectives:
Engine fuel inlet cooler performance testing
Flutter susceptibility data collection
Anti-Skid operational check and data collection

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 68 / GF15
Date: 27 Jun 11 Flight Time: 1.9 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Alsbury WK2 FTE: Seguin
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Binnie

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 67 / GF14
Date: 23 Jun 11 Flight Time: 1.6 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Binnie WK2 FTE: Maisler
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Nichols

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 66 / GF13
Date: 21 Jun 11 Flight Time: 1.5 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis WK2 FTE: Seguin
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Nichols

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 65 / GF12
Date: 15 Jun 11 Flight Time: 1.9 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis WK2 FTE: Persall
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Nichols

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 64 / GF11
Date: 14 Jun 11 Flight Time: 1.2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Binnie WK2 FTE: M. Stinemetze
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Shane

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 63
Date: 10 Jun 11 Flight Time: 0.2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Inks

Objectives:
Full-pedal maximum pilot effort anti-skid braking demonstration from a maximum gross weight landing.

Results:
This flight was a very successful culmination of the previous days' ground and taxi tests that verified the functionality of the anti-skid system. The system functioned as designed without any wheel lock-ups or flattened tires.


Flight: 62 / CC12
Date: 9 Jun 11 Flight Time: 1.4 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Binnie WK2 FTE: Seguin
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Shane

Objectives:
Continued flutter susceptibility envelope expansion

Results:
Flight terminated due to abnormal release system behavior. Post flight inspection revealed cause and confirmed the system stayed in a safe state throughout the flight.


Flight: 61 / GF10
Date: 25 May 11 Flight Time: 1.83 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis WK2 FTE: Reid
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Binnie

Objectives:
Launch space ship above 50,000 feet and then perform as high chase

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 60 / GF09
Date: 19 May 11 Flight Time: 1.38 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Knupp WK2 FTE: M. Stinemetze
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Binnie

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 59 / GF08
Date: 10 May 11 Flight Time: 1.42 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Binnie WK2 FTE: M. Stinemetze
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Shane

Objectives:
SS2 release mission
SS2 photo/safety chase

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 58 / GF07
Date: 4 May 11 Flight Time: 2.03 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Maisler WK2 FTE: Inks
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Nichols

Objectives:
SS2 release mission
SS2 photo/safety chase

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 57 / GF06
Date: 27 Apr 11 Flight Time: 1.26 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Persall
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives met.


Flight: 56 / GF05
Date: 22 Apr 11 Flight Time: 1.4 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis WK2 FTE: Inks
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Shane

Objectives:
ECS evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 55 / CC11
Date: 14 Apr 11 Flight Time: 3.67 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Maisler WK2 FTE: Tighe
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis
GS Crew: Persall

Objectives:
Pilot proficiency
Photo chase
SS2 systems checkouts

Results:
Great pictures and successful systems tests.


Flight: 54
Date: 11 Apr 11 Flight Time: 1.76 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Shane WK2 FTE: J. Stinemetze
GS Crew: Tighe

Objectives:
Pilot proficiency
Brake energy test

Results:
9 approaches flown. All objectives achieved.


Flight: 53 / CC10
Date: 7 Apr 11 Flight Time: 1.35 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Alsbury WK2 FTE: Maisler
GS Crew: Tighe

Objectives:
Speed-power
Return from SFO Terminal 2 grand opening event

Results:
WK2 and SS2 returned home to Mojave Air and Space Port.


Flight: 52 / CC09
Date: 6 Apr 11 Flight Time: 2.83 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Alsbury WK2 FTE: Maisler
GS Crew: Tighe

Objectives:
Rudder trim evaluation
Formation flight with Virgin America A320 over the Golden Gate bridge
SFO Terminal 2 grand opening event

Results:
The Virgin America A320 and WK2 flew in formation with photo chase over the Golden Gate bridge and performed simultaneous landings on runways 28L and 28R at SFO.


Flight: 51
Date: 30 Mar 11 Flight Time: 1.7 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Stucky WK2 FTE: Inks
GS Crew: Tighe

Objectives:
Gear modifications evaluation
GF05 simulated SS2 descent
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved. Multiple ILS approaches flown at surrounding airports. Multiple SS2 approaches flown for proficiency.


Flight: 50
Date: 30 Mar 11 Flight Time: 3.25 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Maisler WK2 FTE: Inks
GS Crew: Binnie, Tighe, Morgan, Kelley, Persall, Reid

Objectives:
Gear modifications evaluation
GF05 simulated SS2 descent
Pilot proficiency
ECS and payload bleed evaluation
INS air align evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved. Gear modifications successfully tested with 15 cycles at various speeds and altitude. Multiple ILS approaches flown at surrounding airports. Multiple SS2 approaches flown for proficiency.


Flight: 49 / 05GC (CC08)
Date: 15 Feb 11 Flight Time: 1.83 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Inks
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury
GS Crew: Binnie, Tighe, Basset, Verderame, Maisler, Kelley, Reid, Zeitlin, Knupp, Cassebeer

Objectives:
Clean release
Expand flutter envelope
Weight expansion
Pilot proficiency

Results:
Due to deteriorating weather, conducted simulated mission and systems testing.


Flight: 48 / 05GC (CC07)
Date: 14 Feb 11 Flight Time: 1.35 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Inks
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury
GS Crew: Binnie, Tighe, Basset, Verderame, Maisler, Kelley, Reid, Zeitlin, Knupp, Cassebeer

Objectives:
Clean release
Expand flutter envelope
Weight expansion
Pilot proficiency

Results:
Due to out of limit winds, conducted simulated mission and systems testing.


Flight: 47 / GF04
Date: 13 Jan 11 Flight Time: 1.4 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Alsbury WK2 FTE: Knupp
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Nichols

Objectives:
SS2 release
Touch-and-Gos'

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 46
Date: 3 Dec 10 Flight Time: 2.5 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Knupp
GS Crew: Maisler

Objectives:
Window fogging evaluation
SS2 glide flight and WK2 pilot and co-pilot landing proficiency

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 45 / GF03
Date: 17 Nov 10 Flight Time: 2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Alsbury WK2 FTE: Morgan
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Nichols

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 44 / GF02
Date: 28 Oct 10 Flight Time: 1.1 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Tighe
SS2 Pilot: Stucky SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury

Objectives:
SS2 release mission

Results:
All objectives achieved.


Flight: 43 / CC06
Date: 22 Oct 10 Flight Time: 3.4 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Inks
GS Crew: Kelley, Kalogiannis, Tighe

Objectives:
Return flight from Spaceport America runway dedication event
Instrument approach currency
SS2 approach practice

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: F42 / CC05
Date: 22 Oct 10 Flight Time: 3.4 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Inks
GS Crew: Kelley, Kalogiannis, Tighe

Objectives:
First SS2 cross country flight
Spaceport America runway dedication event
Environmental control system high-altitude stress test
Extended flight in instrument meteorological conditions
SS2 approach replication

Results:
All objectives achieved.

Flight: 41 / GF01
Date: 10 Oct 10 Flight Time: 1.5 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis WK2 FTE: Persall
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury

Objectives:
SS2 launch mission
NM flight maneuver practice

Results:
All objectives achieved. Launched SS2 at 46,000 ft. Practiced flight maneuver routine for NM.


Flight: 40
Date: 5 Oct 10 Flight Time: 2 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Alsbury FTE: Tighe

Objectives:
SS2 release dry run
Glide flight practice
SS2 approach simulations
Crew proficiency
ECS testing

Results:
All objectives achieved. Rehearsal SS2 mission performed. Three simulated SS2 approaches to low approaches followed by a full stop landing.


Flight: 39 / CC04
Date: 30 Sept 10 Flight Time: 5 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis WK2 FTE: Persall
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury

Objectives:
SS2 systems evaluation
TM performance
SS2 flutter evaluation
Pilot proficiency
SS2 approach evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved. Rehearsal mission to evaluate team and systems for early glides was performed. Simulated SS2 mission was flown to low approach. WK2 systems functioned as desired to support SS2 glide mission.


Flight: 38
Date: 13 Sept 10 Flight Time: 2.5 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Stucky FTE: Inks

Objectives:
Fixed gear performance
Simulated SS2 glide mission
Simulated SS2 approaches
Pilot T&G proficiency (normal patterns)
Pylon evaluation
Rudder repair evaluation
Lateral stability evaluation
ECS performance evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved. Two SS2 approaches to low approach. Two touch-and-go approaches. One full stop. Fixes/modifications cleared for SS2 ops.


Flight: 37
Date: 19 Aug 10 Flight Time: 1.5 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Zeitlin

Objectives:
Dark cockpit APU start
Rudder centering test
Simulated SS2 glide mission
Simulated SS2 approaches
Pilot proficiency

Results:
All flight objectives achieved. On the fifth touch-and-go, a minor incident occurred on the runway at Mojave airport, which involved a mechanical problem with the left hand-side landing gear of WK2. The aircraft was braked to maintain centerline, meanwhile, the engines and systems were secured. No injuries were sustained.


Flight: 36
Date: 18 Aug 10 Flight Time: 3.9 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Alsbury FTE: Maisler

Objectives:
APU ground and air evaluation (to include aircraft engine restarts at high altitude)
Spoil/flap envelope expansion
ECS data collection
SS2 GF01 mission practice
SS2 approach practice
Crew proficiency and training
Ongoing WK2 system evaluations

Results:
All objectives achieved. Five SS2 approaches flown. Eight WK2 practice landings flown.


Flight: 35
Date: 11 Aug 10 Flight Time: 3.7 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Alsbury FTE: Agold

Objectives:
SS2 GF01 mission practice
SS2 approach practice
Crew proficiency and training
Ongoing WK2 system evaluations

Results:
All objectives achieved. Nine SS2 approaches flown.


Flight: 34
Date: 3 Aug 10 Flight Time: 5.8 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Maisler

Objectives:
SS2 GF01 mission practice
SS2 approach practice
Crew proficiency and training

Results:
All objectives achieved. Sixteen practice landings flown. Seven simulated SS2 approaches flown.


Flight: 33 / CC03
Date: 15 Jul 10 Flight Time: 6.2 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Kalogiannis WK2 FTE: Maisler
SS2 Pilot: Siebold SS2 CoPilot: Alsbury

Objectives:
SS2 manned captive carry
Mated flutter evaluation
SS2 systems evaluation
SS2 mission rehearsal

Results:
Objectives achieved. Pilots in SS2 evaluated the systems and procedures for the upcoming glide flights. A simulated SS2 mission was flown from release down to low approach. Performed low approach then full stop on Runway 30.


Flight: 32
Date: 1 Jul 10 Flight Time: 5.3 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Stucky FTE: Harvey

Objectives:
SS2 GF01 mission practice
SS2 approach practice
Crew proficiency and training

Results:
All objectives achieved. Multiple SS2 approaches flown.


Flight: 31
Date: 30 Jun 10 Flight Time: 5.3 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Siebold FTE: Agold

Objectives:
Payload ECS heat characterization
SS2 release dry run
SS2 GF01 mission practice
SS2 approach practice
Crew proficiency and training

Results:
All objectives achieved. Multiple SS2 approaches flown to touchdown.


Flight: 30
Date: 24 Jun 10 Flight Time: 2 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Alsbury FTE: Reeder

Objectives:
SS2 approach simulations
GF01 glide card practice
Crew proficiency and training

Results:
All objectives achieved. Multiple SS2 approaches flown to touchdown.


Flight: 29
Date: 24 Jun 10 Flight Time: 3.4 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Persall

Objectives:
SS2 release dry run
SS2 GF01 mission practice
SS2 approach practice
Crew proficiency and training

Results:
All objectives achieved. Multiple SS2 approaches flown to touchdown.


Flight: 28
Date: 15 Jun 10 Flight Time: 5.3 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Stucky FTE: M. Stinemetze

Objectives:
SS2 mission practice
ECS evaluation
Control evaluation
Low fuel evaluation
Window fog evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved. Climed to 51,500 ft and the ECS performed flawlessly. Flew cross-country to descend over the Pacific to evaluate window fogging. Upon return to the desert, performed controls evaluation which showed good positive control with power loss. Performed "roller coasters" (45° climb, low g pushover followed by 30° nose low dive) to evaluate low fuel states. Touch-and-gos' were uneventful. Full stop landing on Rwy 26.


Flight: 27 / CC02
Date: 16 May 10 Flight Time: 4.7 hr
WK2 Pilot: Siebold WK2 CoPilot: Stucky WK2 FTE: Maisler

Objectives:
SS2 pressurization evaluation
SS2 electrical system evaluation
SS2 avionics performance evaluation
SS2 approaches
Post-Flight cold soaked systems testing

Results:
All objectives achieved. SS2 was pressurized and powered from the mothership in flight. Peak altitude was 51,000 ft which allowed for a long cold-soak to evaluate the robustness of the hardware. A simulated Spaceship descent/glide mission was made from altitude to high key. Several approaches followed for pilot training/proficiency.


Flight: 26
Date: 1 May 10 Flight Time: 5.5 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Shane FTE: Maisler

Objectives:
New hydraulic speedbrake evaluation
Pylon on altitude envelope expansion
SS2 mission practice
Pilot qualitative evaluation

Results:
All objectives achieved. New hydraulically actuated speedbrakes performed as designed. Expanded envelope with pylon installed to 51,000 ft. SS2 approaches flown to RWY 30. For the first time on the program, crew landed on the shorter, narrower 26 RWY.


Flight: 25 / CC01
Date: 22 Mar 10 Flight Time: 2.9 hr
WK2 Pilot: Stucky WK2 CoPilot: Nichols WK2 FTE: Kalogiannis

Objectives:
Captive taxi handling
Speed/altitude envelope expansion
Captive performance, stability and control evaluation
SS2 systems evaluation
Photo and video

Results:
All objectives achieved. Systems performed as designed. Kudos to the entire team for executing an exceptionally clean and successful first captive flight!


Flight: 24
Date: 4 Mar 10 Flight Time: 3.7 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Kalogiannis

Objectives:
Nosegear mod evaluation
Pylon evaluation
ECS evaluation

Results:
Objectives met. Successful evaluation of launch pylon effect on aircraft performance, handling and controls. Fired pylon mechanism in flight for first time.


Flight: 23
Date: 28 Jan 10 Flight Time: 3.1 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Binnie FTE: Kalogiannis

Objectives:
Launch pylon envelope expansion and performance effects
Landing gear door evaluation
SpaceShipTwo approach guidance evaluation
Pilot proficiency

Results:
Launch pylon and gear doors performed well. Multiple SpaceShipTwo approaches flown.


Flight: 22
Date: 17 Oct 09 Flight Time: 1.2 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Kalogiannis FTE: M. Stinemetze

Objectives:
Spoilflap loads data
Continued ECS testing
GPS airspeed calibration
Return from Edwards Air Show

Results:
Objectives achieved. Airborne pickup and unrestricted climb departure from Edwards Open House with WK.
Flight: 21
Date: 17 Oct 09 Flight Time: 1.3 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Kalogiannis FTE: M. Stinemetze

Objectives:
Spoilflap loads data
ECS evaluation
GPS airspeed calibration
Roll effects of angle of attack
Edwards Air Show practice

Results:
GPS airspeed cal and approaches scrubbed for time. Other objectives achieved. Demo performed on arrival to Edwards Air Force Base "Flight Test Nation" Open House/Air Show.
Flight: 20
Date: 15 Oct 09 Flight Time: 3.5 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Kalogiannis FTE: M. Stinemetze

Objectives:
Modified spoilflap envelope expansion
Pressurization/ECS functionality with SS2 valves to 50,000 ft
Landing gear/spoilflap cold soak extension retraction
Fuel system temperature evaluation
Avionics and instrument approach checkout
Aircrew proficiency
Edwards Air Show practice

Results:
Objectives achieved.
Flight: 19
Date: 1 August 09 Flight Time: 5.1 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Morgan

Objectives:
Return to Mojave

Results:
Evaluated systems functionality and performance on return trip to Mojave.
Flight: 18
Date: 31 July 09 Flight Time: 0.2 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Morgan

Objectives:
Oshkosh demo flight

Results:
Demo flight performed.
Flight: 17
Date: 28 July 09 Flight Time: 0.2 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Branson

Objectives:
Oshkosh demo flight

Results:
Demo flight performed.
Flight: 16
Date: 27 July 09 Flight Time: 5.5 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Morgan

Objectives:
Cross country to Oshkosh AirVenture

Results:
Evaluated systems functionality and performance on trip to Oshkosh. Arrived at KOSH and performed short demo flight.
Flight: 15
Date: 21 July 09 Flight Time: 5.7 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: Morgan

Objectives:
Oshkosh dress rehersal

Results:
Objectives achieved. Practiced all procedures and plans in preparation for our long cross country to the Oshkosh AirVenture Convention. Practiced demo flight after simulated mission profile.
Flight: 14
Date: 17 July 09 Flight Time: 0.9 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Siebold FTE: None

Objectives:
Evaluate new DAS build
Instrument approach practice
FAA monitored flight for pilot "Type Rating"

Results:
All objectives completed. Rating Issued.
Flight: 13
Date: 14 July 09 Flight Time: 5 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Siebold FTE: None

Objectives:
Evaluate control surface mods
Evaluate pitot probe relocation
Instrument approach practice
Pilot LOA practice

Results:
All objectives completed. Peak altitude for flight 51,000 ft. Instrument approaches practiced. LOA maneuvers practiced.
Flight: 12
Date: 9 July 09 Flight Time: 4.5 hr
Pilot: Stucky CoPilot: Siebold FTE: Nichols

Objectives:
ECS evaluation
Third seat evaluation
Performance
Landing gear envelope expansion

Results:
All objectives completed. ECS shows exceptional cabin heating and cooling capability. Third seat adequate for test engineer duties. Gear extended out to 160 KEAS. Peak altitude for flight 51,000 ft. Instrument approach and touch-and-go at Victorville.
Flight: 11
Date: 20 June 09 Flight Time: 3 hr (planned)
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: None

Objectives:
Flyby at Los Cruses, NM in support of Spaceport America event
Instrument approaches

Results:
Despite mechanical issues the day before, the Scaled team was able to turn the jet around for a Saturday morning demo at Los Cruses. Several flybys and approaches were performed for spectators in support of the Spaceport America groundbreaking. Systems were evaluated on the high altitude return leg to Mojave. One simulated approach was made to runway 26 before landing on 30.
Flight: 10
Date: 19 June 09 Flight Time: 6 hr (planned)
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: None

Objectives:
To evaluate performance, stability and control, and cold soak effects on first long cross country
Flyby at Spaceport America as able

Results:
En route testing above 40,000 ft was uneventful. During the descent toward the Spaceport America groundbreaking we experienced a failure of a speedbrake actuator. Based on facilities available and logistics for our ground crew, the pilots elected to make a precautionary landing at Williams Gateway airport near Phoenix. Our ground crew is on site and we hope to return to Mojave either this afternoon or tomorrow morning.
Flight: 09
Date: 15 June 09 Flight Time: 7.5 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Stucky FTE: None

Objectives:
Weight expansion at mid cg
Further pressurization/ECS functionality checks to 51,000 ft
Speed envelope expansion
Airborne engine relights

Results:
All objectives completed. Pressurization and ECS worked as designed. Speed envelope expanded with the gear up to 370 KTAS. Peak altitudes increased to 52,400 ft. Performance, stability and handling evaluation performed at altitude. Engines were shut down and restarted per plan. Practiced instrument approaches.
Flight: 08
Date: 11 June 09 Flight Time: 1 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Nichols FTE: None

Objectives:
FAA monitored flight for issuance of pilot letter of authorization

Results:
Letter of authorization issued
Flight: 07
Date: 8 June 09 Flight Time: 6.1 hr
Pilot: Siebold CoPilot: Alsbury FTE: None

Objectives:
Weight expansion at mid cg
Further pressurization/ECS functionality checks to 45,000 ft
Speed envelope expansion
G envelope expansion
Airborne engine relights

RocketMotorTwo Hot-Fire Test Summaries

Many subscale hot-firings were performed at Scaled Composites, LLC between Jun 05 and April 09 to evaluate several different fuels, igniters, injectors, insulators and nozzle configurations, as well as other components and parameters.

Based on the results of those subscale firings, the Scaled/SNC team chose a full-scale rocket motor system design and began testing in April 2009.

The following list includes summaries of the hot-fire activity of the RocketMotorTwo rockets.

Fire: 15
Date: 9 Aug 12

Objectives:
Fifteenth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire.
Continued evaluation of all systems and components:
- Pressurization
- Valve/Injector
- Fuel formulation and geometry
- Nozzle
- Structure
- Performance

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed targeted 45 second hot fire as planned. Duration of burn chosen to allow examination of internal geometry.


Fire: 14
Date: 12 Jul 12

Objectives:
Fourteenth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire.
Continued evaluation of all systems and components:
- Pressurization
- Valve/Injector
- Fuel formulation and geometry
- Nozzle
- Structure
- Performance

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed targeted 55 second hot fire as planned. Duration of burn chosen to allow examination of internal geometry.


Fire: 13
Date: 26 Jun 12

Objectives:
Thirteenth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire.
Continued evaluation of all systems and components:
- Pressurization
- Valve/Injector
- Fuel formulation and geometry
- Nozzle
- Structure
- Performance

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed targeted 55 second hot fire as planned. Duration of burn chosen to allow examination of internal geometry.


Fire: 12
Date: 20 Jun 12

Objectives:
Perform first full scale rocket motor hot-fire at Scaled's test facility
Test stand evaluation
Data Acquisition system evaluation
Rocket Motor Controller performance
Pressurization System Controller performance
Rocket system performance
Valve / Injector / Igniter evaluation
Fuel formulation evaluation
CTN structural evaluation

Results:
First full scale firing of a rocket motor at Scaled’s test site under full control of the spaceship’s Rocket Motor Controller (RMC). All objectives achieved. The difference between Scaled’s site and SNC’s site at Lakeside is the focus on using SS2 flight vehicle hardware. These tests provide an end to end test of all the vehicle’s rocket motor systems and additional confidence before committing the vehicle to powered flight test.


Fire: 11
Date: 6 Jun 12

Objectives:
Eleventh full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire.
Continued evaluation of all systems and components:
- Pressurization
- Valve/Injector
- Fuel formulation and geometry
- Nozzle
- Structure
- Performance

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed targeted 50 second hot fire as planned. Duration of burn chosen to allow examination of internal geometry.

Fire: 10
Date: 17 Apr 12

Objectives:
Tenth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire.
Continued evaluation of all systems and components:
- Pressurization
- Valve/Injector
- Fuel formulation and geometry
- Nozzle
- Structure
- Performance

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed targeted 40 second hot fire as planned. Duration of burn chosen to allow examination of internal geometry.


Fire: 09
Date: 13 Mar 12

Objectives:
Ninth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire.
Continued evaluation of all systems and components:
- Pressurization
- Valve/Injector
- Fuel formulation and geometry
- Nozzle
- Structure
- Performance

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed full 45 second hot fire as planned. Duration of burn chosen to allow examination of internal core geometry.


Fire: 08
Date: 29 Nov 11

Objectives:
Perform eighth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire
All systems evaluation
Modified pressurization schedule
Fuel formulation evaluation
Nozzle evaluation
Motor structural evaluation
Valve/injector performance evaluation

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed 10 second and then 58 second hot fires.


Fire: 07
Date: 25 Aug 11

Objectives:
Perform seventh full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire
Continue all systems evaluation
Continue fuel formulation evaluation
Continue nozzle evaluation
Continue motor structural evaluation
Continue valve/injector performance evaluation

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed 55 second, full duration hot-fire, including igniter performance, oxidizer flow and pressurization systems, data acquisition system measurements, structural evaluation, nozzle ablation, and fuel regression rate data collection.


Fire: 06
Date: 24 Mar 11

Objectives:
Perform sixth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire
Continue all systems evaluation
Continue fuel formulation evaluation
Continue nozzle evaluation
Continue motor structural evaluation
Continue valve/injector performance evaluation

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed increased duration hot-fire, including igniter performance, oxidizer flow and pressurization systems, data acquisition system measurements, structural evaluation, nozzle ablation, and fuel regression rate data collection. Determined stability levels.


Fire: 05
Date: 11 Aug 10

Objectives:
Perform fifth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire
Continue all systems evaluation
Continue fuel formulation evaluation
Continue nozzle evaluation
Continue motor structural evaluation
Continue valve/injector performance evaluation

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed successful increased duration hot-fire, including igniter performance, oxidizer flow and pressurization systems, data acquisition system measurements, structural evaluation, nozzle ablation, and fuel regression rate data collection. Determined stability levels.


Fire: 04
Date: 30 Mar 10

Objectives:
Perform fourth full scale flight design RM2 hot-fire – planned flight fuel
Performed flight design Rocket System evaluation
Pressurization system evaluation
Data Acquisition system evaluation
Fuel formulation evaluation
Nozzle evaluation
CTN structural evaluation
Valve/injector evaluation

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed successful hot-fire, including oxidizer flow and pressurization systems, data acquisition system measurements, structural evaluation, nozzle ablation, and fuel regression rate data collection. Determined stability levels.


Fire: 03
Date: 20 May 09

Objectives:
Perform third full scale RM2 hot-fire with first generation design - same fuel as HF02
Continued Rocket system evaluation
Igniter evaluation
Data Acquisition system evaluation
Fuel formulation evaluation
Nozzle evaluation
CTN structural evaluation

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed successful hot-fire, including oxidizer flow and pressurization systems, data acquisition system, igniter performance measurements, structural evaluation, nozzle ablation, and fuel regression rate data collection. Determined stability levels.


Fire: 02
Date: 06 May 09

Objectives:
Perform second full scale RM2 hot-fire with first generation design - different fuel
Continued Rocket system evaluation
Igniter evaluation
Data Acquisition system evaluation
Fuel formulation evaluation
Nozzle evaluation
CTN structural evaluation

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed successful hot-fire, including oxidizer flow and pressurization systems, data acquisition system, igniter performance measurements, structural evaluation, nozzle ablation, and fuel regression rate data collection. Determined stability levels. Preliminary fuel performance in line with predictions.

Fire: 01
Date: 20 Apr 09

Objectives:
Perform first full scale RM2 hot-fire with first generation design
Test stand evaluation
Rocket system evaluation
Igniter evaluation
Data Acquisition system evaluation
Fuel formulation evaluation
Nozzle evaluation
CTN structural evaluation

Results:
All objectives completed. Performed successful hot-fire, including oxidizer flow and pressurization systems, data acquisition system, igniter performance measurements, structural evaluation, nozzle ablation, and fuel regression rate data collection.

Back to SpaceShipTwo Information

Projects - Main Landing Page Text

The following are highlights of government, commercial and purpose built projects that we have completed over the years.

WhiteKnightTwo

WhiteKnightTwo, or Eve, is the mothership and launch platform for SpaceShipTwo. Due to the demanding design requirements of this vehicle, WhiteKnightTwo has become the world’s largest all carbon composite aircraft with an amazing 140 ft wing span. Powered by four Pratt and Whitney PW308A engines, WhiteKnightTwo has a unique heavy lift, high-altitude capability and an open architecture design which provides for maximum versatility in the weight, mass, and volume of its payload. It has the power, strength and maneuverability to provide for pre space-flight, positive G force and zero G astronaut training as well as a lift capability which is over 30% greater than that represented by a fully-crewed SpaceShipTwo.

WhiteKnightTwo Flight Test Summaries

SpaceShipTwo

SpaceShipTwo will be powered by a unique hybrid rocket motor, which is currently under development. The twin fuselage and central payload area configuration allow for easy access to WhiteKnightTwo and the spaceship for passengers and crew; the design also aids operational efficiencies and turnaround times. SpaceShipTwo utilizes the unique feather configuration that allowed SpaceShipOne to successfully re-enter the atmosphere.

SpaceShipTwo Test Summaries
RocketMotorTwo Hot-Fire Test Summaries

Northrop Grumman X-47A

The Model 326 aircraft (or Pegasus X-47A) is an unmanned aerial vehicle built for Northrop Grumman. The objective of this program was to construct a demonstrator aircraft for Northrop, which would validate their commitment to the UCAV-N program and demonstrate several challenging mission parameters, including: low speed flying qualities, automatic carrier landing system capability, and simulated arrestment. An additional objective was to help Northrop demonstrate their capability to design and build a proof-of-concept aircraft in a short period of time at a low cost.

White Knight

SpaceShipOne

Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer

The GlobalFlyer is a single seat, turbofan powered airplane designed to fly around the world nonstop, unrefueled, with a solo pilot. It achieved this milestone for the first time on March 3, 2005 after 67 hours and one minute of flying time. With that, Pilot Steve Fossett set the record for fastest time around the world unrefueled.

The GlobalFlyer eventually made three solo nonstop flights around the world, and it is now on display at the National Air and Space Museum’s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.

Selected Aircraft Specifications:
  • Wing Span: 114 ft
  • Wing Area: 400 sq ft
  • Length: 44.1 ft
  • Height: 13.3 ft
  • Gross Weight: 22,000 lbs
  • Empty Weight: 3,350 lbs

Adam M-309

The Model 309 is a proof-of-concept aircraft built for Adam Aircraft Industries. Their goal was to provide a very safe twin-engine aircraft that gives good performance and benign single engine handling qualities. The centerline thrust configuration was chosen because it significantly reduces the hazards of single-engine flying qualities and performance, compared to twins in the conventional arrangement. The cabin was designed to carry a pilot and five passengers in pressurized comfort with an unpressurized baggage space in the nose.

The goal of this program was to develop the aircraft for aerodynamic refinement; however, there were several features that are more representative of the production airplane. For instance, there are several major structural components that were produced as single-cure parts. The outboard wings, horizontal tail, elevator, rudders and flaperons had no secondary bonds in their primary structure. This allows lighter, stronger and safer structure due to the significant elimination of fasteners and secondary bonds.

This project was one of the most rapid manned-aircraft development programs in Scaled’s history. Conceptual design started in May of 1999, the first tool was cut late in August, and the first flight was on March 21, 2000. The aircraft was unveiled to a small group of guests on April 5, 2000.

The M-309 can now be viewed on display at the Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum.

Proteus

Proteus is a twin-turbofan, high-altitude, multi-mission aircraft powered by Williams International FJ44-2E engines. It is designed to carry payloads in the 2,000 lb class to altitudes above 60,000 ft and remain on station up to 14 hours. Heavier payloads can be carried for shorter missions. It is intended for both piloted and UAV missions. Missions for Proteus include telecommunications, reconnaissance, atmospheric research, commercial imaging, and space launch.

The Proteus is designed with long wings and a low wing loading needed for efficient high altitude loiter. It excels in stability and low noise.

Proteus is owned by Northrop Grumman Corporation and operated by Scaled Composites, LLC.

Information Downloads (Adobe PDF)
Proteus Mission Users Guide
Proteus Specifications

Customers and Deployments
NASA Dryden - Airborne Science Program
NASA Langley - Earth Science
Spectir
University of Wisconsin – NAST-I
International H2O Project

Press Releases and News
Dec. 11, 2011: ARGUS-IS Sensor Testing
Mar. 9, 2011: KQ-X high altitude wake survey and safety chase
Nov. 18, 2010: MP-RTIP Sensor Development
May 29, 2007: BAE Systems wins contract to put SPIRITT in the sky
Jun. 15, 2005: t/Space tests air-launch passenger-carrying rocket concept
Apr. 30, 2004: Proteus aircraft supports airborne laser tests
Apr. 08, 2003: Researchers encouraged by collision-avoidance test results
Mar. 26, 2003: Radar system may open skies for unmanned vehicles
Jul. 7, 2002: NASA Crystal-FACE
Apr. 15, 2002: Massive weather study heads for the skies and roads of Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas
Mar. 19, 2002: NASA flight tests validate UAV collision-avoidance technologies
Jun. 16, 2001: Proteus successfully tests Goodrich's SKYWATCH(R) TAS
Apr. 23, 2001: Proteus completes Pacific, polar mission
Jun. 15, 1999: Paris Air Show
Feb. 18, 1999: NASA ERAST
Sep. 23, 1998: Proteus: A High-Altitude, Multi-Mission Aircraft

V-Jet II

Williams International Press Release:

Walled Lake, Michigan, June 23, 1997 -- Williams International today announced that its all-composite, turbofan- powered "V-JET II" light aircraft is on schedule for its July 31 fly-in and follow-on demonstration flights and exhibition at the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) convention at Oshkosh, July 30 to August 5, 1997. Williams also announced that, although the aircraft is early in its program of gradually expanding its flight envelope, the twin-engine "V-JET II" has already demonstrated docile stall characteristics for beginning pilots, and it has flown at 30,000 feet and at 295 knots true air speed. The Oshkosh show will be the first unveiling of the aircraft to the media and public.

Last fall under a competitive procurement program among jet engine companies, NASA selected Williams International to join NASA in a $100 million cooperative effort to revitalize the once-flourishing light aircraft industry in the United States through small turbofan engine technology. Under the program, Williams and its industry team members, which include Williams suppliers and future aircraft company customers, provide 60 percent of the resources and NASA provides 40 percent for the initial engine demonstration phase.

Williams, currently in the component design phase of the engine technology program, is emphasizing low cost manufacturing processes suitable for high quantity production, and is active with key suppliers to minimize material and purchase parts costs. The new Williams engine has been named the "FJX-2."

Dr. Sam Williams, Chairman of Williams International, said, "Our objective is to replace aging, piston-powered light aircraft with all new, four-place single and six-place twin, turbofan-powered modern aircraft. This means we must develop a turbofan in the 700 lb thrust category that is very low in cost at a high production rate, is extremely quiet, is light in weight, and is very reliable."

Not intended for production, the "V-JET II" was designed by Dr. Sam Williams to demonstrate the new Williams FJX-2 high bypass ratio engine characteristics in flight over the anticipated speed and altitude range for the future "turbofan-powered, light aircraft era."

Several Williams "V-JETs" have been designed in past years by Dr. Williams with three full-scale mockups and at least a dozen small models studied to arrive at the present "V-JET II" configuration. The name, "V-JET," started with the forward-swept or V-shaped wing that continues from the early Williams designs.

The "V-JET" has the appearance of an advanced fighter with forward-swept wings. The sleek appearance is not only for marketing appeal but is for sound aerodynamic and structural reasons. The Williams design emphasized, and has now achieved for beginning pilots, very docile stall characteristics (because of the forward-swept wing) and minimum pilot action required in the event of a single engine-out condition (because of the close spacing of the engines in the unique Williams V-tail design).

Williams also revealed today it contracted with Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites organization to start with the Williams preliminary design, to conduct the “V-JET II" detailed design and analysis, and to manufacture the prototype "V-JET II" (that will fly in to the Oshkosh show). According to Dr. Williams, "Burt Rutan and his team have made major improvements to this design and have introduced into this prototype many new, exciting manufacturing processes." Flight testing is being done by Scaled Composites; Doug Shane, acting as Chief Pilot of the program; Matt Gionta, Project Engineer; and Burt Rutan.

The aircraft at Oshkosh this year will be powered by two existing low bypass ratio, 550 lb thrust, FJX-1 turbofan engines developed previously by Williams, These interim engines are being used to check out the aircraft's performance and systems prior to installation of the new high bypass ratio, FJX-2 engines being developed in cooperation with NASA. The new engines are to be installed during the fourth year of the NASA/Williams program and demonstrated at Oshkosh during the year 2000.

According to Williams, the "V-JET II" will be used primarily to demonstrate the new turbofan engines over a range of flight speeds and altitudes that are expected to be required in future turbofan-powered light aircraft. Installation characteristics, engine performance data, noise levels, exhaust emissions, and flight parameters will be reviewed with the aircraft companies that are participating in the program as members of the NASA/Williams General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) team.

Another purpose of the "V-JET II" flight demonstrations will be to stimulate interest on the part of aircraft companies in designing and developing production aircraft utilizing this new propulsion technology. Williams said, "When the public views the 3,800 lb "V-JET II" powered with the existing small turbofan engines, the interest will begin to build. However, later in the program when they view this sleek aircraft powered with extremely quiet, very low cost, light weight, high bypass ration turbofans, the potential for a revival of the light aircraft industry through turbofan power should certainly be underway. I believe every light aircraft pilot dreams of being a jet pilot. This low cost turbofan technology can make this a reality."

The V-Jet II is on display at the EAA Museum in Oshkosh.

VisionAire Vantage

In early 1993, Jim Rice and Tom Stark of the fledgling VisionAire Corporation visited Scaled with conceptual designs for a new single-engine business jet. Rice, a successful entrepreneur and general aviation pilot, had a vision that such an aircraft would be a market success; Stark, an experienced aerospace engineer and manager, shared that vision, and got to work making it a reality.

Following a design and feasibility study, Scaled was given the go-ahead to build a proof-of-concept prototype on March 8, 1996. Only one problem, though: they wanted to show photographs and films of the airplane flying at the 1996 National Business Aircraft Association (NBAA) convention, scheduled to begin on November 19, 1996.

Under a fixed-price contract, Scaled rolled out the Vantage to a large group of customers and press just 8 months later (November 8, 1996), and performed a picture-perfect first flight on November 16, 1996.

Raptor

The Raptor Demonstrator high-altitude, long endurance, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program was conducted under a contract from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to Scaled Composites, LLC. In order to satisfy rigorous performance criteria of flight up to 65,000 ft and 48 hour plus endurance, a high fuel fraction and light weight composite structure were necessary.

In order to reach altitudes of 65,000 ft, the Raptor used a two-stage turbocharged, 100 hp, highly modified Rotax engine. This propulsion package was successfully tested in an altitude chamber to over 70,000 ft altitude. Additionally, Scaled was responsible for the design, manufacturing, and development of the high-altitude propeller system, a 2-blade all-graphite controllable pitch unit. Scaled also designed, developed, and tested all Raptor flight controls, including autopilot, autonomous navigation, and emergency recovery systems.

In 1995, the Raptor program was transferred to NASA under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program as a flying test bed for technologies applicable to future high altitude UAVs.

The airplane was flown in a manned configuration to allow testing of changes to the flight control system with minimal risk to the airframe. The safety pilot was provided manual controls which can override control system commands. This somewhat novel approach allowed rapid development of the vehicle handling qualities and evaluation of the flight controls at low cost and program risk.

General Motors Ultralite Show Car

The Advanced Engineering Staff of General Motors designed a technology demonstration vehicle called the Ultralite, an automobile with interior room capable of seating four full size adults, and with excellent visibility, handling, performance, emissions and fuel consumption. Scaled Composites was selected to design the composite structure for this revolutionary vehicle.

A carbon fiber skin/PVC core sandwich panel structure was chosen for all the primary and secondary structure for the 10 chassis/body components.

Two complete all-graphite vehicle structures were designed, fabricated, and ready for delivery within 12 weeks after program start. The vehicle’s structural weight, including two doors, front and rear bumpers and interior components, was 420 lbs, which was within 1% of the original structural weight estimate.

The Ultralite program conclusively demonstrated Scaled's unique structural design capabilities, stringent weight control, and rapid response characteristics, as well as its ability to work well as part of a team under a very tight schedule.

Agile Responsive Effective Supports (ARES)

The ARES, Scaled Model 151, was designed initially in response to a U.S. Army request for a Low Cost Battlefield Attack Aircraft (LCBAA). A design study was performed by Rutan Aircraft Factory in 1981 for such an aircraft. Its mission goals were low-altitude, close air support, with long endurance, and with adequate field performance to operate from roads.

Scaled followed up with the concept, and ultimately decided to build a demonstrator aircraft with internal funds. The ARES first flew on February 19, 1990. ARES has flown more than 250 hours, and demonstrated all of its design performance and handling qualities goals, including departure-free handling at full aft stick. During November of 1991, tests of the GAU-12/U gun system installed in ARES were performed, with outstanding results.

Movie buffs may also remember the ARES in its role as the secret ME-263 jet in the screen classic Iron Eagle III.

ARES is currently available for use as a research test bed.

Stars & Stripes

Scaled completed the structural design, tooling, fabrication, and static testing of an 85 ft span and a 108 ft span rigid sail/airfoil for the America’s Cup Challenge Race. This program was performed under an extremely ambitious schedule with delivery of the first 85 ft span completed structure in ten weeks, and the delivery of a modified second 108 ft span sail structure only eight weeks later.

Triumph

The all-composite Triumph, an 8,500 lb, pressurized 8-place business aircraft, was designed around the brand-new, never flown, Williams FJ-44 turbofan engine. The subsequent test program, which consisted of over 100 hours of flight tests, confirmed the performance and operating characteristics of both the airplane and the engines. The Triumph was tested to over 41,000 ft at speeds up to .69 Mach. Pressurization systems were developed, installed, and tested, basic handling qualities and performance tests were conducted, and a significant body of engine tests was performed.

The Triumph is currently on display in the Blackbird Airpark in Palmdale, California.

Advanced Technology Tactical Transport (ATTT)

The Model 133-4.62 ATTT proof-of-concept demonstrator is a 62% scaled version of an airplane designed to challenging STOL and long range requirements. The ATTT was developed and test flown by Scaled under contract to DARPA. The initial flight test program consisted of 51 flights with the original cruciform tail configuration, measuring and refining performance, stability and control, and handling qualities. The results of the fabrication and test program were presented in a comprehensive report to DARPA.

The M-133 demonstrator used a unique flap system to enable its STOL performance. The high lift configuration consists of eight Fowler-type flaps, each of 43% chord. The flap system was designed to allow the initial takeoff roll to be performed with the flaps extended, but at low deflections to minimize takeoff drag. The ATTT demonstrated our ability to perform a challenging aerodynamic and structural design, and to build, test, and deliver a very unique flight test program within a very limited budget.

The ATTT is currently in storage at the Air Force Flight Test Center Museum, at Edwards Air Force Base.

Starship

A subscale version of an eleven-place, twin turboprop, high-performance business aircraft developed for Beech Aircraft Corporation. Scaled was hired to design, build and test an 85% scale demonstrator of the Next Generation Business Aircraft (NGBA). Beech required performance and flying qualities data in a short period of time to support their production go-ahead decision. After a 9-month build cycle, Scaled and Beech flew the first 100 flight test hours in only 35 calendar days.

Microlight

Model 97 is a two-place, side-by-side airplane of the 300 lb empty weight class. It has a slightly swept-back canard forward and swept back wings with winglets at the tips. The aircraft was developed for the founder of the Lotus auto company, Colin Chapman.
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